Sunday, April 22, 2012

Earth Day and the Overview Effect

While I enjoy Earth Day and the outpouring of love and caring for our beautiful planet, I always find myself a bit sad this day as well. You may ask why, since it is an important occasion that grew out of the golden years of space exploration back in the 1960s, a time when we went to the moon and the Overview Effect was first beginning to have an impact on our thinking and our behavior.

And that is exactly the reason I am sad. It is no accident that the first Earth Day, held in 1970, took place not long after the Apollo 11 landing on the moon, and at a time when astronauts were still making trips to the lunar surface. There is no question in my mind that the pictures and videos of the Earth as seen from Earth orbit and the moon were instrumental in birthing the environmental movement. However, over the next few years, a split took place between space enthusiasts and environmentalists that persists to this day.

I will examine this split and what might be done to heal it in future blogs. For now, I will enjoy Earth Day and consider whether the Overview Effect and Earth Day's connections might be more fully acknowledged in the future.

Wednesday, March 21, 2012

Race for Space: The Overview Effect

This is a very interesting contest. Hundreds of people are entering it to get a chance to go into orbit on a private spacecraft. This shows the level of interest that exists in this opportunity.

I have entered as a means of promoting awareness of the importance of the Overview Effect.

Frank White

Race for Space

Monday, March 19, 2012

Space Contest and the Overview Effect

I just entered a contest to take a suborbital hop into space on a private spacecraft. Metro Newspapers is the sponsor.

I made my argument for going based on my work on the Overview Effect and with the Overview Institute and cited my desire to share the Overview Effect with the world.

While I have enjoyed competing and would very much like to win, I have also been inspired by the fact that more than 350 people have entered in the American phase of the contest alone. Some of the entries are not very serious, but others are. One contestant wants to be the first deaf person in space to show what people with disabilities can do. Another person wrote an essay for their dad, who always wanted to be an astronaut.

There is an enormous pent-up demand for private spaceflight, or Ispace, as I like to call it. There is a tremendous opportunity here for entrepreneurs like Sir Richard Branson, Elon Musk, and others.

Let's open the space frontier and let's experience the Overview Effect!

Here is the link where you can read all the essays. If you like the case I have made, please vote for me (or maybe you would like to enter the contest yourself.)



Monday, February 6, 2012

A University on the Moon? Talk About Higher Education!



            I recently had a long talk with Lynn Harper, who works for NASA and is one of the most original thinkers about space exploration that I know. Lynn and her colleagues are working on a big-picture concept that is gaining a remarkable amount of traction, considering the level of ambition that it represents. 

            The basic idea is for a permanent human settlement on the moon. The concept is not new; it was first seriously studied by NASA under Space Architect Gary Martin in the early 2000s, but the level of support it has garnered lately really is unique.   Recent advocates include Nobel Laureate Baruch Blumberg, who urged the development of a Lunar University in the last speech he gave before he died.  Henk Rogers, the self-made billionaire founder of Tetris, has adopted this endeavor as one of his special projects.  Endorsement for the enterprise includes the Lieutenant Governor of Alaska, the former Governor of Hawaii, and the President of the Space Tourism Society. (Republican presidential candidate Newt Gingrich has recently advocated a base on the moon, but his proposal is not connected with the idea that Lynn and I discussed.)

There are multiple components to the plan, but what interested me the most was the notion of a Lunar University, or Lu-U. I wrote a chapter on higher education in Low Earth Orbit for the recently published book, Living in Space, and I am convinced that colleges and universities ought to be making much more of the advantages that a space-based perspective would offer them.

            My own interest is, of course, the Overview Effect, or the view of the Earth from space and in space, from orbit or the moon. Based on my interviews with 22 astronauts for my book on the subject (The Overview Effect: Space Exploration and Human Evolution), and many subsequent conversations with colleagues at the Overview Institute, I’m convinced that seeing the planet from a distance triggers a cognitive shift that we are only now beginning to understand.

            If this is the case, let’s consider the applications that might be activated by a lunar university. First, we might imagine that this institution would offer students many of the courses that Earthbound universities do: philosophy, history, chemistry, physics, and sociology. Then, there would also be courses that could only be offered on the moon, such as studying the effect of low-gravity environments on the human body.

            Of course, they might study the Overview Effect itself. What better place to review the history and reality of this phenomenon than the lunar surface, with the Earth rising over the horizon or hanging in the sky?

            To me, though, the primary difference would be that students would take these courses with the Earth hanging in the lunar sky. They would have a dramatically different perspective on the subject matter than they would if they were on the Earth. How might this change their understanding of what they were being taught?

            Since I am a social scientist by training and education, I will speak to that aspect of the possible changes in curriculum and learning process, rather than to physics, chemistry, and the other so-called “hard sciences.”

            Let’s focus on one area in particular, international relations. How would students think differently about the struggles for power and prestige among nations if they were talking about this topic while looking at the planet from 240,000 miles away? They might well study the competitions for national prestige among the countries of the twentieth and even twenty-first centuries, but with a newfound realization that the borders and boundaries over which these nation-states fought existed only primarily the minds of the competitors.

            Having realized that the nation-state is more a concept than a reality, they might begin to think of new ways of governing our planet. This is not to imply that nation-states need to be abolished in order to have an appropriate form of planetary governance, but they certainly need to function differently.

            As I have continued to study the Overview Effect, it has seemed to me that this experience points to finding the optimum balance of unity and diversity. When we see the Earth from a distance, we see its unity as a whole system. At the same time, we know that this same planet harbors an enormous amount of diversity when viewed from its surface, and this is not an altogether negative thing. Total unity can be totalitarian, total diversity can be anarchy.

            This is what I have always thought would be the most important outcome of the Overview Effect, i.e., that “overview thinking” would become our dominant paradigm, so obvious to us that we would no longer find it to be out of the ordinary. I believe that people living on the moon, and teaching and learning on the moon, would inevitably practice “overview thinking” without even being aware of it. Today, we don’t stop and think, “Oh, wow, my ideas are structured around the idea that the Earth is round, not flat.” We take it for granted that we are speaking from a context of living on a globe.

            “Overview thinking” is the next logical step in this understanding of our place in the universe. Whatever discipline we are studying will be seen in the context of a planet that is a whole system of which humanity is a part. In fact, those who study in a lunar university are likely to take yet another step, experiencing what I call the Copernican Perspective, or realization that we are also a part of a solar system.

            I was pleased to see that a “summit conference” on lunar settlement was recently held in Hawaii, and that a prototype would soon be built at the University of Hawaii. This means that the academic aspects of this great venture will be primary, which is a good thing.  And Hawaii is not the only state that is looking toward the moon.  A unique program at the University of Southern California asks students at the Graduate Space Concepts Studio of the Department of Astronautical Engineering  <http://leapfrog.usc.edu/> to dream up humanity’s next big space adventure.   One of the concepts to be explored:  building an industrial research park on the moon.

            Since the early settlers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony decided in 1636 to establish a new college that eventually became Harvard University, institutions of higher learning have been critical to the opening up of new frontiers. A university on the moon—Lunar U—will follow in that tradition and will give “higher learning” an entirely new meaning. As one who has been teaching in a university setting for the past 15 years, I can say that the prospect of doing so with a view of the Earth from the classroom window is exciting, indeed!

(Note: My comments in this blog represent my own point of view, and not that of Harvard University, any of its Schools, or any other institution with which I am affiliated.)

Monday, November 28, 2011

The Overview Effect and Language

The more I think about it, the more I'm convinced that our language may be the biggest barrier to our understanding of who we are and where we are in the universe. In my most recent blog, I posited the idea that we see "space" as distant and unfamiliar when it is actually closer to us than places we routinely visit on Earth. In that blog, I suggested we use the term "Earthspace" for the region controlled by the Earth's gravity, "moonspace" for the region controlled by lunar gravity, and so on throughout the solar system. Using this nomenclature would be more descriptive than to call all of it "space."

Looking back, I think we could say that coining the term "The Overview Effect" was, in fact, an effort to create new language to describe the spaceflight experience. I think we could also say that it has been an effective way to give that experience a different context.

In reality, we are on a natural spaceship that is in motion around the sun, which is in motion around the galactic center. We know this intellectually, but our senses, and our language, tell us otherwise. Thus, we continue to speak of "sunrise" and "sunset." We know that the sun is not rising or setting, but rather that the Earth is rotating on its axis and revolving around the sun and this changes how we see the sun on a daily basis. But we still use the older terminology because it is familiar and is also consistent with what our senses tell us.

"Days" and "years" are not necessarily inaccurate terms, but they also are not descriptive of reality. What if we called a "day" a "rota" and a year a "rev?" So there would be 365 rotas in one rev. Instead of saying that an astronaut had spent 14 days in space, we would say he/she had spent 14 rotas in Earthspace.

Similarly, we talk about "going into space" when we are already in space, always have been in space, and always will be in space. It would be more accurate to talk about "evolving into the universe."

Some of these new words may not work. They may be too awkward to use effectively or to gain wide acceptance. However, I think the effort to invent a new spacefarers' language makes sense and I will continue to work on it in future blogs.


Sunday, November 27, 2011

The Overview Effect and the "Facebook Revolutions"

As we have watched the uprisings that began in the Middle East and have now spread around the world, much has been made of the role that Facebook, Twitter, and other online technologies have played in assisting the revolutionaries in coordinating their actions.

What hasn't been mentioned is that these capabilities depend largely on a space-based technology, i.e., satellites, for their impact. When I interviewed astronaut Jeff Hoffman for The Overview Effect, he pointed out that the "technological overview" might have greater near-term influence on society than the philosophical shifts resulting from viewing of the Earth from space. Speaking of the impact of global communications, he noted that very little could happen anywhere in the world without other people knowing about it.  He said, "That is probably the biggest thing the space program has done in terms of changing human consciousness, although very few people recognize it as the space program."

The same might be said of the environmental movement, which has had an enormous influence on our society. The link between the movement and the early views of the whole Earth from the moon was noted  at the time, but seems to have been ignored in recent years. Some environmentalists are even hostile to the idea of space exploration.

I detect, on the part of humanity, an unwillingness to absorb one of the key messages of the Overview Effect, which is that we are in space, we always have been in space, and we always will be in space. And as we move out into the universe, our life on Earth will forever be changed. I've begun to think that the problem might lie with the word "space." Even though the domain we call "space" is closer to the surface of the Earth than Boston is to New York, our minds tend to think of it as far away and alien in some way. I wonder if we need a new word, like Earthspace, to describe that region outside our biosphere that is still quite close to our planet's surface. Perhaps that would diminish our sense of being far away from home when we are in "space."

We could even embroider on this concept and say that as long as we are within the gravitational pull of the Earth, we are in Earthspace. If we created another Apollo vehicle like the Saturn V, and entered the moon's gravitational pull, we would be in "Moonspace." We could divide the entire solar system up this way, so that our minds would not feel so overwhelmed by the term "space," which would still be, of course, the "final frontier."


Sunday, May 29, 2011

The Overview Effect and Cognitive Dissonance

At the most recent ISDC conference, I made a "virtual presentation" on the Overview Effect and Cognitive Dissonance." (My colleagues at Kepler Space University, Bob Krone and Sherry Bell, actually made the presentation for me as part of KSU's "Living in Space" track.)

Cognitive dissonance is a psychological term used to describe the state that a person enters when they are holding two conflicting thoughts in their minds at the same time. This is especially painful when the conflicting thoughts are around self-perception. The argument of the paper is that there is a conflict between how the Earth is seen from orbit or the moon as one experiences the Overview Effect (serene and beautiful) and how it is so often seen from the surface as one experiences what some have half-jokingly called "the Underview Effect" (chaotic and not very attractive). I am beginning to think that this dichotomy has been an underlying force of human history for the past half-century, as some 500-plus individuals have gone into space and a network of satellites has created the underpinnings of technological overview.

With six billion people living on the planet, only .00000008 percent have directly experienced the Overview Effect. As one of the astronauts put it to me when I was writing The Overview Effect, it's like a "drop in the ocean" when they come back to describe their experiences. However, with the advent of large-scale commercial spaceflight, this will inevitably begin to change, and the percentages will eventually hit one percent, two percent, and then increasingly much higher numbers. Over time, it is my expectation that a quantitative shift produces a qualitative shift and the cognitive dissonance will be reduced as we gain a new sense of human identity as "Citizens of the Universe."